Setsubun and Otafuku


Setsubun and Otafuku

Tan-zaku, 短冊, short-volume, long narrow paste with painted color picture of masks of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, and Saru-ta-hiko, 猿田彦, Monkey-ricefield-lad, shin-en-rei, 神苑例鈴, god-garden-bells, with long trailing five-color ribbons: signed, ?-kō, 香, ?-incense; L. 9.5 x 1.5 sun kujira-jaku. The scene is enacted each year on Setsu-bun, 節分, Season-divide, which occurs on February 2 or 3, the ideological last day of winter. Otafuku represents the abundance and fertility of spring dispelling the harshness of winter. The oni is not evil, but embodies aspects of nature that can bring destruction.

Kake-mono, 掛物, hang-thing, detail color painting of a scene with O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, in a round window throwing parched soy beans at an oni, 鬼, demon; by Hanabusa I-tchō, 英 一蝶, Calyx One-butterfly (1652 – 1724).
Kake-mono, 掛物, hang-thing, detail color painting of a scene with O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, in a round window throwing parched soy beans at an oni, 鬼, demon; by Hanabusa I-tchō, 英 一蝶, Calyx One-butterfly (1652 – 1724).

The round window may evoke the moon or the sun, as round windows are not common in Japanese architecture. Otafuku is a celestial being, as she is a manifestation of Ame-no-uzu-me no Mikoto, 天之鈿女命, Heaven-’s-ornament-woman’s Lady. Her name is also written, 天宇受賣命, Heaven-sky-turn-show-Lady. Uzume represents the turning of the heavens, and appears at the beginning of spring.

 

Mask of O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, composition covered with gesso and color details; H. 5.3 sun kane-jaku. Dashi buku-sa, 出帛紗, out cloth-gauze, exceptionally fine thread damask weave, shō-ha don-su, 紹巴緞子, help-comma damask-of, with pattern of fuku-ju, 福寿, fortune-longevity, in foliate roundels on a check ground: 8.2 x 7.6 sun kujira-jaku. The pattern is secondary to the orientation of the fukusa when opened in the tokonoma.
Mask of Otafuku, showing reverse side with painted blue surface decorated with small gold leaf patches.
Kake-mono, 掛物, hang-thing, hon-shi, 本紙, main-paper, with a painted picture of O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, sitting atop the upright hana, 鼻, nose, of a mask of a ten-gu, 天狗, heaven-dog, and text and signature.

Depictions of a tengu and Saru-ta-hiko, 猿田彦, Monkey-ricefield-boy, are often quite similar in appearance. The golden eyes of the tengu denote that he is a deity, and the red cord shows that it is a mask. This author is able to read with little assurance the Kanji for fuku, 福, fortune, and ten-gu no hana, 天狗の鼻, heaven-dog.

 

Shin-en-rei, 神苑鈴, god-garden-bell, cluster of ten brass bells, six-lobe escutcheon, with wooden handle and long trailing red and white cords ending in a tassel: L. bells and handle 5 sun kujira-jaku, the cords 16 sun kujira-jaku. The cha-sen, 茶筅, tea-whisk, L. 3 sun kujira-jaku.

The bells are held in the right hand and twisted to ring the bells, just as the chasen in held in the right hand and briskly rinsed in water making the sound ‘sara-sara,’ and twisted to make tea. ‘Sarasara’ is said to be the sound the wind makes in the reeds along a river. The actions of Setsubun take place in heaven along the Ama-no-kawa, 天の川, Heaven’s-river, the Milky Way. The pictured shinenrei is a bit atypical, as it has long cords, whereas the more familiar cluster of bells has long ribbons of five primarily colors: purple, red, white, yellow, green. The tassel is also unusual, but does seem to correspond with the thread around the chasen. There are pictures and writings that may not be suitable for the tokonoma in the Tearoom, but can be displayed in the machi-ai, 待合, wait-gather, before entering the Tearoom.

Tan-zaku, 短冊, short-volume, long narrow paste with painted color picture of masks of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, and Saru-ta-hiko, 猿田彦, Monkey-ricefield-lad, shin-en-rei, 神苑例鈴, god-garden-bells, with long trailing five-color ribbons: signed, ?-, 香, ?-incense; L. 9.5 x 1.5 sun kujira-jaku.

Length of the standard tanzaku is 9.5 sun kane-jaku, the widths are 2 and 2.5 sun kane-jaku. It should be understood that there are many variations on almost anything. 

The long narrow format of the tanzaku lends itself extremely suited to the narrow wooden posts of Japanese wood frame construction. There are two general standards for a post, hashira, 柱, in domestic architecture: the width of the post is 3 are 4 sun kane-jaku. square with slightly chamfered corners.  The pictured board hanger was made to accommodate a tanzaku of 2 sun kane-jaku, as can be seen in the width of the bamboo support piece at the bottom. 

The open-work, sukashi, 透かし, motif is of leaves of sasa, 笹, bamboo grass. There may be wordplay on sasa-e, 笹絵, bamboo-picture, as sasae, 支え, is a common word that means ‘support.’ 

There are wooden plank hangers made specially for mounting the long narrow pasteboard pieces, tan-zaku kake, 短冊掛, short-volume hanger. The familiar display board is made of sugi, 杉, cedar; L. 20 x 3 sun kane-jaku. 20 sun kane-jaku transposes to 16 sun kujira-jaku. The number 16 has a greater numerological symbolism. 

The measurement of 9.5 sun kujira-jaku transposes to 11.875 sun kane-jaku. It is obvious that the tanzaku is measured with the kujira-jaku, whereas the wooden post and the tanzaku board hanger are measured with the kane-jaku. In a relatively obscure manner, the various elements relate to each other 8:10, which is identified with concept of ya-ta, 八咫, eight-span, symbolic of Infinity in Space.

Length of the standard tanzaku is 9.5 sun kane-jaku, the widths are 2 and 2.5 sun kane-jaku. It should be understood that there are many variations on almost anything. 

The long narrow format of the tanzaku lends itself extremely suited to the narrow wooden posts of Japanese wood frame construction. There are two general standards for a post, hashira, 柱, in domestic architecture: the width of the post is 3 are 4 sun kane-jaku. square with slightly chamfered corners.  The pictured board hanger was made to accommodate a tanzaku of 2 sun kane-jaku, as can be seen in the width of the bamboo support piece at the bottom. 

The open-work, sukashi, 透かし, motif is of leaves of sasa, 笹, bamboo grass. There may be wordplay on sasa-e, 笹絵, bamboo-picture, as sasae, 支え, is a common word that means ‘support.’ 

There are wooden plank hangers made specially for mounting the long narrow pasteboard pieces, tan-zaku kake, 短冊掛, short-volume hanger. The familiar display board is made of sugi, 杉, cedar; L. 20 x 3 sun kane-jaku. 20 sun kane-jaku transposes to 16 sun kujira-jaku. The number 16 has a greater numerological symbolism. 

The measurement of 9.5 sun kujira-jaku transposes to 11.875 sun kane-jaku. It is obvious that the tanzaku is measured with the kujira-jaku, whereas the wooden post and the tanzaku board hanger are measured with the kane-jaku. In a relatively obscure manner, the various elements relate to each other 8:10, which is identified with concept of ya-ta, 八咫, eight-span, symbolic of Infinity in Space.

Shiki-shi, 色紙, color-paper, with printed image of the face of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, with calligraphy age and signature, of Tomi-oka Te-ssai, 富岡 鉄斎, Wealth-hill Iron-abstain, 1837 – 1924. The outline of Otafuku resembles the sora-mame, 空豆, sky-bean, which is cured to become Otafuku mame, 豆, bean.
Uchiwa, 団扇, round-fan, paper and bamboo with printed design of dolls of Daruma to Hime Daruma, 達磨と姫達磨, Attain-polish and Princess Attain-polish, and the phrase, ‘nana korobi ya oki,’ 七転び八起き, seven fall down eight get up. Full length is 10.8 sun kujira-jaku; length and width of papered area of the fan is 9.5 sun kane-jaku; length of handle is 4 sun kane-jaku.

The shape of the fan is like the outlines of both doll figures, which is the hisago, 瓢, gourd. The bottle gourd, hyō-tan, 瓢箪, gourd-basket, is one of the most sacred objects in Taoism. Many uchiwa have the shape of the gourd.

Kake-mono, 掛物, hang-thing, hon-shi, 本紙, main-paper, with a ink sketch of a group of women resembling Otafuku. Each woman is occupied with traditional phases of beautification, entertainment, sewing, etc. Perhaps drawn by a late 19th century artist known as Hyaku-fuku, 百福, Hundred-fortunes.

In spite of Otafuku’s plump appearance, which modern people regard as less than pretty, she was once regarded as beautiful as it has the figure identified with abundance and fertility. One can appreciate such beauty more greatly by looking at the old picture scrolls of the Gen-ji Mono-gatari, 源氏物語, Origin-clan Thing-word, narrative.  

 

Kake hana-ire, 掛花入, hang flower-receptacle, stoneware vessel in the form of a hyō-tan, 瓢箪, gourd-basket, with a sunken mouth in the manner of Oto-go-ze, 乙御前, Second-hon.-fore, Shiga-raki yaki, 信楽焼, Faith-pleasure-fired; H. 5 sun kane-jaku. marked (?)-raku, -楽, -pleasure.
Kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather, ‘Raku’-yaki, 楽焼, Pleasure-fired, with color glazes; lid with mask of O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, and base with mask of an oni, 鬼, demon, marked Ko-kon, 古今, Old-now.
Kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather, ceramic figure of O-fuku, お福, Hon.-fortune, as Toshi-toku-jin, 歳徳神, Year-virtue-god, is holding a hō-ju, 宝珠の, treasure-jewel, with multi-color glaze motifs of shō chiku bai, 松竹梅, pine bamboo apricot. Figure by Mori-sato Tō-raku, 森里陶楽, Woods-town Ceramic-pleasure.
Kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather, porcelain, covered box, fuku masu, 福枡, fortune-box measure, with designs in some-tsuke, 染付, dye-attach, blue glaze of a mask of O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, and base with mask of an oni, 鬼, demon, and fuku-mame, 福豆, fortune-beans; un-marked.
Fuku-masu, 福枡, fortune-box measure, square box made of sugi, 杉, cedar, with branded design of O-kame, お亀, Hon.-turtle, and the name of the temple, Sen-bon Shaka-dō, 千本釈迦堂, Thousand-origins Explain-‘ka’-hall, Kyōto. One of the oldest surviving Buddhist temples that was founded in the 13th century. When designing it, the architect had a problem that was solved by his wife, whose name was Okame.

 

Kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather, maroon lacquered covered container, O-ta-fuku Mame, お多福豆, Hon.-much-fortune Bean, lined in gold, yō-ji ire, 楊枝入, willow-branch receptacle, from Sakura-i, 桜井, Cherry-well. A toothpick is an essential possession of a Buddhist monk. The piece is decorated with a gold-leaf design of a sprig of nan-ten, 南天, south-heaven, nandina: the word nanten is wordplay on nan-ten, 難転, difficulty-turn around.
Kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather, porcelain, covered container in the form of the face of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, molded from a pressed sugar o-ka-shi, お菓子, hon.-sweet-of, a kind of raku-gan, 落雁, alight-goose, filled with an, 餡, sweetened red bean jam; made by Palmer and fired by Steven Murphy, Boston. Ko-buku-sa, 古帛紗, old-cloth-gauze, fuku-ju kin-ran, 福寿金襴, gold-brocade, square of blue silk fabric with check weave and embroidered motifs of the Kanji for fuku, 福, fortune, and ju, 寿, longevity; 5 x 5.2 sun kane-jaku, by Tatsu-mura, 龍村, Dragon-town, Kyōto.

 

Kettle, ro-gama, 炉釜, hearth-kettle; tetsu, 鉄, iron, named Kashiwa-ba Uba-guchi-gama, 柏葉姥口釜, Oak-leaf Old woman-mouth-kettle, rounded form with sunken mouth, uba-guchi, 姥口, old woman-mouth; diam. 5.8 sun kujira-jaku, by Taka-hashi Kei-ten, 高橋敬典, High-bridge Respect-law, Nin-gen Koku-hō, 人間国宝, Person-space Country-treasure, Yama-gata Shi, 山形市, Mountain-shape City. Choice of Sen Sen-sō, 仙叟, Thousand Hermit-old man, 7th generation Iemoto, Urasenke, Kyōto.

The word ubaguchi is associated with Oto-go-ze, 乙御前, Second-honored-before, who is one of Amenouzume’s manifestations. The kettle’s name kashiwa-ba refers to the raised design of a large oak leaf on either side of the kama, which is to imply kashiwa-de, 柏手, oak-hands. Kashiwa-de is also the term for clapping one’s hands to get the attention of a deity at a Shintō shrine. There is a famous incident in which a valiant warrior named Kashiwade no Hanoshi, 膳泣巴提使, Tray-weep-comma-carry messenger, killed a menacing tiger in a bamboo grove near a waterfall in Korea. The above-pictured kama has kantsuki, 鐶付, metal ring-attach, that are in the form of pieces of bamboo, and the kettle is full of water. There are often multiple and somewhat obscure meanings identified with many kama.

Pack of folded papers, kami kama-shiki, 紙釜敷, paper kettle-spread, and a piece of kai-shi, 懐紙, heart-paper, made into a shi-de, 四手, four-hand, Shintō zigzag paper pendant.

 

 

 

Kami kama-shiki, 紙釜敷, paper kettle-spread, is a pack of 18 to 40 sheets of paper folded twice in opposite directions, used to rest the kama when removed from the hearth to attend to the charcoal fire. The kami kamashiki was the original kai-shi, 懐紙, heart-paper, that Rikyū cut approximately in half to be less extravagant to be used personally as kaishi. However the large kaishi are used with the kama, and are often displayed in the tokonoma to support a kō-gō, 香合, incense-gather.  

A shi-de, 四手, four-hand, is a cut and folded doubled sheet of paper to form a zigzag pendant that is displayed to invite Shintō spirits. In Chanoyu, when presenting mei-sui date, 名水点, name-water presentation, which features water from a famous source put into a mizu-sashi, 水指, water-indicate, that is adorned with several shide attached to a straw rope, shime-nawa, 注連縄, pour-along-rope. The shime-nawa is often wrapped around a display stand for Tea utensils for the New Year.  A shide is easily made: cut a sheet of women’s kai-shi, 懐紙, in half, fold it in half, from the middle of the folded edge, cut in two/thirds, from the opposite edge on both sides of the center cut, cut in two/thirds, fold down the paper from the cuts. When making a shide, the piece is folded three times, just as the kami kamashiki is folded three times.  It may be that displaying the kami kamashiki in the tokonoma is to represent the shide at a Shintō shrine. When Amaterasu was coaxed out from the Cave of Heaven, she was offered paper streamers that in time became paper shide

Three dried natural gourds – in Japanese each is called a hisago and fukube, 瓢. The word ‘fuku-be’ can be written 福部, fortune-office.

Each was cut for a particular use: the largest is for holding charcoal, which Rikyū preferred as a sumi-tori, 炭斗, charcoal-measure, for use with the ro; full diam. 9 sun kane-jaku. The gourd may be lacquered black on the interior. The fukube sumitori is used most frequently for Ro-biraki, 炉開, Hearth-opening, for the first Tea of the ro season in November. The middle size gourd is suitable for use as a ken-sui, 建水, build-water, which is one of the prime uses for the dried gourd. The small gourd is used as a hi-ire, 火入, fire-receptacle, for the tabako bon, 煙草盆, smoke-grass tray. It is interesting to note that with a burning piece of charcoal inside, the gourd remains only a little warm to the touch.

Because a gourd is creation of nature, it is difficult to have a gourd sumitori that has the exact same measurements of Rikyū’s fukube with a diameter of 9 sun kane-jaku.  Gourds have been used to hold charcoal for hundreds of years, and often they are fashioned to resemble Daruma. Daruma is often a companion to Otafuku, and as her name includes the word ‘fuku.

Mizu-sashi, 水指, water-indicate, white porcelain vessel in the form of a settled sphere evoking a New Year offering of mochi; diam. 6.8 sun kane-jaku, by An-dō Takumi, 安藤工, Peace-wisteria Worker, made in Kyōto. Designed by Palmer, inspired by the form of the kama, 釜, kettle, ‘Otogoze,’ 乙御前, Second-hon-fore.
Cha-ire, 茶入, tea-receptacle; brown ceramic jar in the form of a hisago, 瓢, bottle gourd, with brown glaze, Kyō yaki, 京焼, Capital fired, by Ban-dai Ki-zan, 万代 喜山, Ten thousand Joy-mountain, Kyōto: H. 2.8 sun kane-jaku; with silk drawstring bag, shi-fuku, 仕服, work-cover, with design of Ichi-matsu Takara, 市松宝, City-pine Treasure. The bottle gourd is one of the most sacred objects in Taoism.

An appropriate ma-tcha, 抹茶, powdered tea, for Setsubun might be; ‘Fuku Mukashi,’ 福昔, Fortune Past, choice of Tan-tan-sai, 淡々斎, Light-light-abstain, XIV Iemoto, Urasenke, by I-ppō-dō, 一保堂, One-provision-hall, Kyōto.

Cha-shaku, 茶杓, tea-scoop: take, 竹, bamboo, naka-bushi, 中節, middle-node, ‘Mame-maki,’ 豆撒, Bean-scatter; L. 6 sun kane-jaku.

Wood chashaku, ‘shin,’ 真, true, style, ume, 梅, Japanese apricot, Prunus mume; L. 6 sun kane-jaku. Setsubun occurs at the time in February, when the ume are blooming in Kyōto.

Wood chashaku, ‘shin,’ 真, true, style, ume, 梅, Japanese apricot, Prunus mume; L. 6 sun kane-jaku. Setsubun occurs at the time in February, when the ume are blooming in Kyōto.
Cha-wan, 茶碗, tea-bowl; ceramic with slightly sunken kō-dai, 高台, high-support, ring foot, with pink and black glazes, ‘Oto-go-ze,’ 乙御前, Second-hon.-fore, the second imperial daughter, Sa-sa-ki Shō-raku – Ryō-raku, 佐々木松楽-良楽, Help-help-tree Pine-pleasure Good-pleasure, Kame-oka, 亀岡, Tortoise-Hill.

The chawan form is modeled after a kama owned by O-da Nobu-naga, 織田信長, Weave-ricefield Faith-long, named Otogoze, as it had a sunken mouth, a somewhat unflattering observance of an older woman’s sunken mouth. See the ‘Otogoze’ kama pictured above. The ‘Otogoze’ chawan is one of a group of chawan created by Kōetsu, that he called fukuro, 袋, bag.

 

 

Tsutsu ja-wan, 筒茶碗, cylindrical tea-bowl, ceramic with red glaze and black markings with designs of haku-bai, 白梅, Japanese apricot, on the exterior and a color-glaze picture of an O-ta-fuku men, お多福面, O-much-fortune mask, aka-Raku-yaki, 赤楽焼, red-Pleasure-fired, marked Ya-saka-yaki, 八坂焼, Eight-hill-fired. 

 

 

Made for the month of February, which is the time in Kyōto when the ume is in flower, a true sign of approaching spring. Otafuku’s mask in the bowl comes from the Setsubun phrase, “Oni wa soto fuku wa uchi,” 鬼は外福は内, Demon as for out fortune as for in.
Hai-zara, 灰皿, ash-dish, te-aburi, 手焙, hand-toast, white ceramic container in the form of a hime yuki-daruma, 姫雪達磨, princess snow-Daruma, with facial features in black and red. Conceived as an ashtray, with indentations for cigarettes at the back. However, putting a piece of burning charcoal in a bed of ash, makes a fine hand-warmer.

In Japan, a typical snowman is made to look like Daruma. While sitting for nine years, Daruma lost the use of his legs, so that he is pictured without them. A hand-warmer is often presented to the guests in cold weather, and would be given before preparing usu-cha, 薄茶, thin-tea. Smoking articles are presented to the guest, such as the typical tabako bon, 煙草盆, smoke-grass tray.

 

Hi-ga-shi, 干菓子, dry-sweet-of; upper right – various raku-gan, 落雁, alighting-goose, molded sugar in the form of the mask of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, and lower left – soba ita, 蕎麦板, buckwheat-wheat boards, with kuro go-ma, 黒胡麻, black foreign-hemp, sesame seeds, made by O-wari-ya, 尾張屋, Tail-lengthen-house, Kyōto, renowned for their soba noodles. Hi-ga-shi bon, 干菓子盆, dry-sweet-of tray, round, red-lacquered wooden tray with upright gallery and with a design in gold for the Kanji, fuku, 福, fortune; diam. 7.3 sun kane-jaku, from Tachi-kichi, たち吉, ta-chi-good luck, Kyōto.
Two views of a hira-natsume, 平棗, wide-jujube, tea container, black lacquered exterior, by Ara-i Shi-hō, 新井司峰, New-well Official-peak, Yama-naka chō, 山中町, Mountain-middle-town, with black-lacquered Kanji oni, 鬼, demon, on the lid, and red lacquered interior with a gold lacquered Kanji fuku, 福, fortune, on the underside of the lid, made by Taka-hashi Shō-zan, 高橋松山, High-bridge Pine-mountain, Ō-tsu, 大津, Big-port; 1.6 x 2.2 sun kujira-jaku
Designed by Palmer inspired by the Setsubun phrase, “Oni wa soto Fuku wa uchi,” 鬼は外 福は内, Demon as for out Fortune as for in.

 

Ceramic bowls by various potters, with the interiors decorated with the face of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune: cha-wan, 茶碗, tea-bowl, yu-nomi, 湯呑, hot water-drink, gui-nomi, ぐい呑, ‘gulp sound’-drink, for sake. The front of each bowl has the calligraphy for hyaku-fuku, 百福, hundred-fortune. Originating in China, there is a tradition of writing one-hundred variations on a particular Kanji, and fuku, 福, is a very popular character.
Cha-wan, 茶碗, tea-bowl, brown ceramic bowl with a rim that suggests an outline of a mask of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, with a false kata-kuchi, 片口, side-mouth, with gray glaze and white ha-ke-me, 刷毛目, brush-hair-eye, by Asa-mi Yoshi-zō, 浅見与し三, Shallow-see Impart-three, and with color glaze design on the exterior of two oni, 鬼, demon, in the Ō-tsu-e, Big-port-picture, manner, and gold Kanji for fuku, 福, fortune, on the inside, by Taka-hashi Shō-zan, 高橋松山, High-bridge Pine-mountain, Ō-tsu, 大津, Big-port; approximate diam. 4 sun kane-jaku.
Futa-oki, 蓋置, lid-rest, wa, 輪, circle, ceramic with color glazes and gold design of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, joyously laughing, and scattering colorful fuku-mame, 福豆, fortune-beans, taken from a masu, 枡, box measure, potter’s stamp is illegible. H. 1.8 sun kane-jaku.
Mizu-tsugi, 水次, water-next, ceramic, cylindrical kata-kuchi, 片口, side-opening, with C-handle and raised on three small feet, with colorful glaze designs of uzu-maki, 渦巻, spiral-wrap, unmarked: diam. 5 sun kane-jaku. The uzu-makiis a mon, 紋, family crest worn by the women of Urasenke. Uzu is wordplay on Ame-no-uzu-me, 天宇受賣命, Heaven-sky-turn-show-Lady. Uzume danced before the Ame-no-iwa-to, 天の岩戸, Heaven’s-rock-door, to coax Amaterasu out of the cave – turning around shaking reeds, which are represented by a cluster of bells. Rikyū’s cylindrical wooden, mage mizu-sashi, 曲水指, bend water-indicate, is the standard for the mizusashi, and the vessel diameter is 5.8 sun kane-jaku. The mizusashi diameter is .8 sun kane-jaku wider than the container of the katakuchi mizutsugi.
Hiki-hai, 引盃, draw-cup, red-lacquered shallow sake cups; diam. 2.8 sun kujira-jaku, stacked on a black-lacquered hai-dai, 杯台, cup-stand; diam. 3.5 sun kujira-jaku. Japanese lacquerers use the kujira-jaku for measurements. The diameters of the cup and stand relate to each other 8:10. To drink sake from the shallow sakazuki, 盃, sake cup, one must use both hands. Chō-shi, 銚子, sake pourer-of, called kan-nabe, 燗鍋, warming-pot, with sunken mouth called Oto-go-ze, 乙御前, Second-hon.-fore, with relief designs of flowers and leaves of kiri, 桐, paulownia; diam. 5 sun kane-jaku. The design of the handle is modeled on a snowflake. Traditionally, sake is served warm during the Tea meal called kai-seki, 懐石, heart-stone. The diameters of the cup stand and the pitcher relate to each other 8.8:10

 

Fū-fu Da-ru-ma Tokkuri, 夫婦達磨徳利, husband-wife Attain-polish Virtue-advantage: to-kkuri, 徳利, virtue-advantage, porcelain sake bottle suggesting the red-robed body of Daruma, with cups modeled on the heads of Daruma and Hime-Daruma, which nest on top the bottle, Ku-tani yaki, 九谷焼, Nine-valley fired; full height 4 sun kane-jaku. Although the set is not usually present in the Tearoom, it is a charming way for a couple to drink sake together.
Sake cups: ten-gu, 天狗, heaven-dog, red face with big nose, O-ta-fuku, お多福, Hon.-much-fortune, lady with black hair, and Hyō-ttoko, 火男, Fire-man, who may wear a hachi-maki, 鉢巻, bowl-wrap headband with pattern of blue dots called mame-shibori, 豆絞り, bean-wring, which is worn by countless chefs and other workers. Hyottoko blows air through a bamboo tube to stoke a fire, which is the reason why his mouth looks so strange. A mendicant monk, yama-bushi, 山伏, mountain-bow, and a tengu, wears on his forehead a small box called a to-kin, 頭襟, head-collar.

Various sake cups with the interior decorated with the face of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, that have the molded relief face of an oni, 鬼, demon, on the opposite side. The largest cup diameter is 2.2 sun kane-jaku. These little cups embody the motto of Setsu-bun, 節分, Season-divide: “oni wa soto fuku wa uchi,” 鬼は外福は内, demon out fortune in. The demon’s horns and chin form a tripod for stability. The tiny face inside the small orange-tan cup is as small as a mame, 豆, bean, as the word mame also means small. Traditional sake cups are small, as one should drink the entire contents in one or more sips, so that the sake stays warm.

Un-cooked sora-mame, 空豆, sky-beans, and sora-mame, 蚕豆, silk worm-beans, broad beans, also called fava, etc., (Vicia faba).
Cooked and candied sora-mame are turned black and then called ‘O-ta-fuku-mame,’ お多福豆, O-much-fortune-beans.

The name sora, sky, comes from the trait of the stalks stand upright toward the sky. One must be very careful eating broad beans, as they can be highly toxic to some people, and even cause death. The cooked and cured beans are less treacherous. Because of their deathly potential, the ancients around the world associated broad beans with death, and displayed them at funerals. 

Raw or cooked, the bean with and without its skin does look a little like Otafuku. Actually, with the skin removed, the bean has a small pointed ‘nose’ which could evoke images of the oni. Making Otafuku mame includes long cooking, with sugar and soy sauce which gives its black color. Why they are so-named Otafuku remains a mystery, so far.

Two ceramic plates showing front and back: colorful design of the face of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, and the face of an oni, 鬼, demon, the horns and chin give stability; approximately 5 x 5 sun kane-jaku, made by An-dō Takumi, 安藤工, Peace-wisteria Worker, Kyōto, Tajima, Gifu. Suggested design by Palmer for souvenirs at a Setsu-bun cha-kai, 節分茶会, Season-divide Tea-gathering, in Kyōto in the 1980s.

Two faces of a translucent porcelain pitcher with raised features and colorful glaze designs of an oni, 鬼, demon, and O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune, Ban-ko-yaki, 萬古焼, Ten thousand-old-fired; H. 4 sun kane-jaku.

Te-nugui, 手拭, hand-wipe, cotton cloth with color designs of O-ta-fuku, お多福, O-much-fortune involved in traditional Japanese activities; L. 3 shaku kane-jaku. A person should have a tenugui to dry the hands at the chō-zu-bachi, 手水鉢, hand-water-bowl, in the ro-ji, 露地, dew-ground, garden before entering the Tearoom.
Exhibition of Otafuku memorabilia from the Garandō Collection at the North Truro Library, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. 2006.